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J Korean Gerontol Nurs > Volume 16(1):2014 > Article

Original Article

J Korean Gerontol Nurs. 2014 Apr;16(1):59-67. Korean.
Published online Apr 30, 2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17079/jkgn.2014.16.1.59
© 2014 Korean Gerontological Nursing Society
Effects of Pain on Memory, Physical Function, and Sleep Disturbance in Older Adults with Chronic Disease: The Mediating Role of Depression
Yongsuk Kim,*1and Hye Sun Byun2
1Department of Nursing, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.
2Department of Nursing, Yeungnam University College, Daegu, Korea.

*Corresponding author: Kim, Yongsuk. Department of Nursing, Daegu Haany University, 136 Shincheondong-ro, SuseongGu, Daegu 706-828, Korea. Tel: +82-53-770-2283, Fax: +82-53-770-2286, Email: kyss@dhu.ac.kr
Received November 14, 2013; Revised February 26, 2014; Accepted March 29, 2014.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The present study was done to examine the role of depression as a mediator of the effect of pain severity on memory function, physical function and sleep disturbance in older adults with chronic disease.


The participants were 158 older adults with chronic disease who were living at home. All participants completed structured symptom questionnaires. Data were analysed with the SPSS program, using descriptive statistics and regression analysis.


Mediation analysis suggested that pain severity influences sleep disturbance directly as well as indirectly by its effect on depression. The ratio for sleep disturbance affected by pain severity directly was 72.7% and for sleep disturbance affected by pain severity via depression indirectly, 27.3%.


These results indicate that effect of pain severity on sleep disturbance is mediated by depression. Pain severity affected sleep disturbance directly as well. These findings suggest clinical intervention opportunities that include strategies to improve depression for better pain control which in turn will result in reduced sleep disturbance.

Keywords: Pain, Depression, Memory, Activities of daily living, Sleep.


Figure 1
Path diagram demonstrating mediating effect of depression on memory, physical function and sleep quality.


Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of Participants (N=158)

Table 2
Scores for Study Variables

Table 3
Tests for Mediating Effects of Depression

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